Breast cancer and breast cancer – without any exaggeration, the scourge of modern society, forcing shudder more than one woman. On this oncological disease accounts for 16% of all female cancer pathologies. This means that breast cancer is the leading place among all cancers in women. The ability to aggressive growth and activity of tumor metastasis downright demonized the disease in the eyes of the beautiful half of humanity. It is fair to say that breast cancer in men is possible. This fact simply does not fit in the head of the male part of the population, which, by the way, in the end leads to delays in seeking medical attention and, consequently, to poor outcomes. But in this article we will talk about breast cancer in women.
Causes of Breast Cancer
Scientific evidence linking excess endogenous estrogen and breast cancer. The peak of the lowest activity of these hormones is celebrated during pregnancy and during the period of breastfeeding . Therefore breast cancer during pregnancy and lactation is unlikely, and they can be with good reason ranked among the best means of preventing this cancer location. But abortion , on the contrary, due to the fact that they lead to a hormonal “surge” can stimulate the formation of tumors. Also say that the early appearance of menses, after the birth of first child (after age 30), late menopause markedly increase the risk of breast cancer. This is due to prolonged exposure to estrogen in the woman’s body. And how hormonal contraceptives? – you ask. Then double-edged sword: it is believed that the risk of breast cancer, they reduce, but increase the risk of osteoporosis and cervical cancer (I should mention that all this supposedly disputes do not cease to this day).
Let’s talk about other causes of breast cancer. One of the weight – a bad heredity. In fact, breast cancer can be called familial form of cancer if it was the mother (sister), then the risk to get it doubled.
- And briefly list the remaining factors:
- poor environmental conditions,
- borne diseases of inflammatory nature breast ( mastitis )
- benign disease (ductal papillomatosis,
- fibroadenoz, fibrous breast )
- exposure (eg, frequent and prolonged radiographic examination)
- obesity (excess fat stimulates the release of estrogen)
- alcohol abuse.
The symptoms of breast cancer:
Here are the first symptoms of breast cancer in women, which is not possible not to pay attention to:
- It does not cause pain at first dense tumor, marked with breast palpation;
- visual change in the shape and contours of the breast;
- skin deformations (retraction or puckering of the breast skin);
- gradually develop a sense of discomfort and pain in the breast;
- bloody discharge from the nipple, his retraction, induration or swelling;
- increase in axillary lymph nodes on the same side from which the above symptoms are marked.
Since metastasis occurs through the lymph (and blood) vessels, the metastases can occur in all regional lymph nodes: axillary, okologrudinnoy, anterior chest, over-and subclavian. Hematogenous (blood vessels) metastases evident in the bones, liver, kidneys and lungs. Breast Cancer peculiar phenomenon of latent or “dormant” metastasis manifested after a few years (the case has been described their development even after 20 years) after surgical removal of the tumor.
Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
Before talking about the clinical diagnosis methods should focus on self-study, which is in relation to breast cancer is of paramount importance, since reveals the tumor is still in the early stages, which significantly improves the prognosis and survival. BSE should be 6 – 12 days after the onset of menstruation. First of all, it is necessary to evaluate the visible breast changes (this is best done before the mirror) compared to the symmetry of the mammary glands, their contours, the color of the skin, the size and color of the nipples. After a visual inspection should be palpation, which is alternately probing downward breast, paying attention to the armpits (remember the lymph nodes?). All these manipulations is recommended at least once a month. If the detected suspicious nodules, seal, skin retraction, there is pain – it is an “iron” excuse to see a doctor.
Clinical breast examination
The main method of diagnosis of breast cancer – mammography – x-ray. This method is ideal for the early diagnosis of the disease.
In order to ensure pre-staged diagnosis, use of breast ultrasound and biopsy (tissue sampling for further histological examination).
Geography metastasis was determined by radioisotope studies (bone scintigraphy), abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, X-ray examination of the lungs.
Preventive examination by a gynecologist and mammalogy with mammography and breast ultrasound is recommended to take 1 time a year for all women.
Stages of Breast Cancer
Virtually any illness during their course of undergoing various stages of its development. Breast cancer – is no exception. Classification of clinical manifestations of the disease allows to forecast the outcome of the disease, it
helps to choose methods and means of treatment. So, let us, in fact, to the stages of breast cancer:
- Step II . Symptoms of this stage:
- Stage I of . At this stage, the cancer becomes malignant and begins to spread beyond their original location, without affecting the lymph nodes yet. Tumor size – up to 2 cm.
- 0 stage . At this stage, the cancer referred to as non-invasive, ie benign, do not spread to adjacent tissue.
- achieving tumor size up to 5 cm, or
- lesion axillary lymph nodes from tumor (itself while it may be less than 5 cm).
Stage II are distinguished from the next stage just after the lymph nodes as they need not be welded to each other conglomerates and adjacent tissue and skin.
4. stage III in turn sub-divided into:
- substage A. Again two criteria: either the tumor size (greater than 5 cm), or a significant increase in the lymph nodes and soldering with each other and with the border fabrics.
- substage V. This sub tumor size is considered a diagnostic criterion, it can be of any size, but needs to grow into the skin, chest wall, or internal lymph nodes of the thoracic cavity. In 5-10% of cases in this sub-evolving inflammatory cancer, characterized by redness of the skin breast covers. On palpation of the skin is warm, it may be rough, like an orange peel. Chest (or portion thereof) is increased, compacted. Symptoms are somewhat similar to the normal inflammation of the breast – mastitis.
5. Stage IV of . At this stage the tumor extends not only to nearby tissue and lymph nodes, and metastasis by migrating to the brain, lungs, liver, bone, and supraclavicular lymph nodes.
Stage 0 and I, and stage II if the tumor mass has not affected lymph nodes are in the early stages of breast cancer, the other – to late.
Treatment of Breast Cancer
Mainly in the treatment of breast cancer has been and still is a surgical method. Without radical removal of the affected organ can not do. Any other treatment option is only slightly delay the time before surgery or death.
Operation can take place according to several scenarios:
- complete removal of the breast from the surrounding fatty tissue and axillary lymph nodes. This version – the most effective;
- It removes only the breast area, in which the tumor is localized, the next axillary lymph nodes. In the future held sessions of radiation therapy on the tumor area;
- scale removal as breast and pectoral muscles, blood vessels, and sometimes even the edges if the tumor was large.
Surgery is usually complemented by medication. If there is no metastasis, in as maintenance therapy for 5 years after surgery, tamoxifen is used. The purpose of the reception – metastasis prevention.
In identifying metastases in axillary lymph nodes without fail applied radiation and chemotherapy. Radiation treatment lasts for months at low doses daily. Chemotherapeutic agents are introduced into the vein.
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Prevention of breast cancer
In terms of the prevention of breast cancer is necessary to track the body and hormones, in which case, to correct it. It comes down to the elimination of hot flashes, weakness and other related phenomena menopause, use of low-dose hormonal contraceptives. About natural breast cancer prevention: pregnancy, childbirth and breast-feeding has been said above. Pozdnorodyaschie (after 30) and nulliparous women are at risk. Those women who have already been in the family history of breast cancer – an annual X-ray and mammography is mandatory.
For breast cancer prevention should include a healthy diet and physical activity, which will help in the fight against obesity, and moderate alcohol consumption.
The survival rates for breast cancer
Survival rates, as well as at other cancer patients, is highly dependent on the time of the detection of tumors. Therefore, developed countries with high incomes, which are actively working the program for the early detection of breast cancer, for example, in the US, Canada, Japan, Germany, the survival rate is 80% and higher in countries with average income level – 60%, with low income – 40%. This spread is also explained by the presence and the absence of special medical equipment and drugs for the treatment of breast cancer.
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