Depression sign and Symptoms
Depression (or depressive disorder) is a common mental illness that its mood disorders, severely disrupts daily life. Many psychological, biological and environmental factors are involved in its onset.
The depression called in common parlance “nervous breakdown “does not mean a stroke of depression or transient sadness but a real mental illness. It is characterized by mood disturbances. The depressed mood leads to a pessimistic vision of the world and oneself. It lasts longer than two weeks and rang significantly on daily life.
The only desire does not get out. This is why it must be careful not to complicate or become chronic.
Why occurs depression?
Depression is the result of poorly understood mechanisms.
There are three types of factors:
- Psychological factors: they are rooted in childhood (relations with parents, difficult experiences, etc.) or in a more recent period (trauma, bereavement, etc.).Some negative behaviors or beliefs (think is unable to do certain things) can promote the onset or maintenance of depression;
- factors related to the environment : disruptive events or excessive stress caused, for example, family conflict, work or illness;
- Biological factors: when depressive disorders, brain function is disturbed.Brain structure, however, is not damaged and the operation of disorders are reversible. The neurotransmitters have abnormalities in their manufacture and their regulation.
This condition can occur in people with Vulnerability old events:
- Have parents who have suffered from depression;
- Have experienced trauma or major parental conflict in childhood.
These factors increase the risk of one day being touched by the disease.
Conversely, events that occur suddenly (such as bereavement) and causing excessive stress can “trigger” depression even without special vulnerability.
Depression can also be associated with other factors:
- alcohol addiction, tobacco or other substances consumed to ease anxiety;
- Anxiety disorders that can increase its severity.
The frequency of the depression
Depression is a mental illness more prevalent.
According to a 2005 survey, about 19% of French 15 to 75 years (nearly nine million people) have lived or will live a depressive episode during their life. 8 % of French 15 to 75 years (almost three million people) had a depressive episode in the year. The women have two times more likely than men to experience depression.
Depression: Symptoms, Diagnosis and evolution
It is very important to early detect a first depression because depression treated late can cause complications
The specific symptoms of depression
During a depression, there are:
- a constant sadness that lasts most of the day and that is repeated almost every day for at least two weeks;
- a general downturn;
- loss of interest and pleasure for usually enjoyable activities;
Taken in isolation, these symptoms do not necessarily mean that there is a depression. Must present several signs associated to talk about depression.
These disorders may be associated variable to:
- a decrease in the capacityconcentration ;
- anintense fatigue and perceived lack of permanence in power. This fatigue is not improved by rest or sleep;
- adeterioration of sleep . It becomes somewhat refreshing, often too short with early awakenings;
- alow self-esteem and guilt associated with the feeling that it cannot change;
- asense of loneliness , abandonment, worthlessness, feelings of not being loved;
- apessimistic view of life;
- ofthoughts about death in general, and sometimes around suicide;
- achange in appetite which may lead to weight loss or weight gain;
- ofsexual disturbances : desire and sexual pleasure fade or disappear completely.
The depressed person is not always aware of his illness and often during a visit to the doctor for physical ailments that the depressive episode is diagnosed.
The diagnosis of depression
It is difficult to judge for himself of his psychological state: the evaluation by a health professional is vital.
Depression occurs most often in the form of episode: we talk of depressive episode.
The diagnosis ‘depressive episode characterized landed:
- when the signs lastmore than two weeks ;
- when, during this period,almost every day , the person feels sad, hopeless or lost his interests;
- When this state of suffering is associated with several othersymptoms of depression.
The evolution of depression
Complete and lasting cure
Healing of depression is possible.
The duration of the depression is variable (from a few weeks to several months). Most depressive episodes lasted less than six months.
It can take place more or less rapidly after the first depressive episode.
Recurrences can succeed and periods of improvement in the condition between depressive episodes may become increasingly short.
However, when the person receives treatments and an adequate monitoring, the risk of recurrence of symptoms and suffering are largely reduced. Hence the importance of early and effective management of the disease.
We talk about chronic depression when disorders last for more than two years.
We speak of residual symptoms when depression improves, but some problems persist.
This is usually:
- sleep disorders, food and sex life;
- chronic fatigue sensation;
- of anxiety;
- a pessimism;
- a decrease in self-esteem;
- a lack of motivation, reduced emotional feelings;
- The persistence of depressive ideas.
Suicidal ideation are common in depression. It is important to talk to his doctor and his family.
A large majority of people experiencing thoughts of suicide do not attempt. But the suicide risk should not be underestimated: about 4% of people affected by depression die by suicide.
This is most often when depression is not treated it can lead to suicide. It is therefore important to detect depressive disorders, to treat and to regularly monitor the depressed people by a doctor.
The treatment of depression
A therapeutic treatment is the result of collaboration between the general practitioner, psychiatrist and possibly other health professionals; patient involvement is also essential for a better result. The psychotherapy and drug treatment are adapted to each case; light therapy is used in some forms of depression supplement. The care and treatment adaptation sometimes require hospitalization.
The information of the patient and the aid relationship
As with any disease, especially those that evolve over time, the information given to the patient, and sometimes his entourage (with the consent of the patient) plays an important role. Indeed, the involvement of the depressed person in the treatment helps improve symptoms and healing.
The creation of a counseling and support with the general practitioner, psychiatrist and possibly other health professionals is key to this support.
The treatment of depression by psychotherapy
The psychotherapy is recommended, regardless of the type of depression. It acts on behaviors that can promote the onset or persistence of depression. It may be the only support or be associated immediately to antidepressant medication. There are several types of psychotherapy proposed symptomatically, demand and the constraints of the patient.
The psychotherapy can be performed in private practice but also in institutions or in the mental health centers (CMP).
Talk with your doctor to find the treatment most suitable to your situation.
Medical and psychological centers (CMP)
CMP are public institutions that include psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, social workers and other health professionals. It is a place of welcome, guidance and support for suffering people and their families. CMP provide consultations that are fully supported by social security. They work by geographical area. It therefore several department.
Antidepressants and other drugs
These medications are prescribed to reduce the symptoms of depression and its consequences. Their selection is tailored to each individual depending on the characteristics of the disease.
There are several classes of antidepressants: Imipramine, Fluoxetine, Citalopram, etc. They all act at different enzymes of the brain, to prevent the destruction or increase the production of certain neurotransmitters.
The Lithium, which acts as a slightly different principle, can also be used in some forms of depression.
Side effects are possible, especially early in treatment or during dose increases (decided by the doctor when necessary). They are usually passengers. Depending on the types of drugs, the side effects can be: a sleepiness (or conversely excitation), a constipation, a gain or loss of weight, dry mouth, a voltage drop, the disorders erection.
Antidepressants take two to four weeks before acting. Once the improvement obtained, the treatment is continued for four to six months minimum to consolidate the positive results. Regular intake of the treatment is essential.
Early treatment is stopping the cause of recurrence of depression. Stopping treatment, if warranted, should be discussed with the doctor and should be done gradually, over several weeks.
Other treatments for depression
Light therapy in SAD
In some cases such as seasonal depression, light therapy can be used. It consists in exposing the eyes to light the nature of which is close to that of the sun but without the infrared nor ultraviolet that are harmful to the skin and eyes.
Hospitalization for serious depression
If the risk of suicide is high and if the doctor believes that this is an emergency, hospitalization should be considered.
In addition to this emergency, hospitalization may be required to assess a complex situation or during a change of processing.
Living with depression
Our doctor coordinates your care .Other caregivers can intervene: psychiatrists, other specialists, psychologists, nurses, etc. Do not neglect your medical monitoring is important. In everyday life, adopt a healthy lifestyle and do not hesitate to get help from your entourage or patient associations.
- Monitoring over the long term is important indepression. The treatment, developed quickly and effectively (psychotherapy with or without antidepressants), and regular monitoring, prevent complications of depression as suicide risk, the chronicity and recurrence.
- Follow these tips to make the most effective treatment prescribed:
- Do you explain your disease and you agree to be treated?Depressive disorder is a real illness;
- have a good relationship with the professional choice forpsychotherapy (psychiatrist, psychologist);
- Agree to be helped, trust and express what you feel.Feel free to talk about suicidal thoughts to your doctor and your surroundings;
- write down your questions to prepare for your next consultation;
- learn to recognize aggravation;
- follow the prescribed treatment and its duration;
- Know the side effects associated with different treatments and report them to your doctor.
You can be yourself every day:
- try to have a healthy lifestyle: adopt a rhythm of regular meals and sleep;
- participate regularly (at least 30 minutes three to five times a week) aphysical activity moderate;
- Adopt abalanced diet with emphasis on fresh fruits and vegetables, fish and vegetable oils;
- Pain felt in depression may promote the consumption of alcohol or other addictive substances (anti-anxiety drugs, tobacco …).At the moment, these substances can give you the impression of being relieved, but can actually worsen depression. On the other hand, alcohol consumption can interfere with the effect of antidepressants;
Professional activity and depression
Do not hesitate to contact your company doctor if your doctor has prescribed a work stoppage. An adaptation of your recovery may be considered: Therapeutic halftime in a short period adaptation of the workplace … a pre-resumption of consultation may facilitate the return to work. If more than 30 days stop, a visit to recovery from the occupational physician is mandatory.
Structures with you and inform you
Depression degrades self-esteem grows and more to turn inward to reach out to others. It is considered “unworthy” or “unable” to have beneficial behaviors for themselves and satisfying relationships with others.
Get help with your own doctor but also by social workers: social workers, home health aides…. Patient organizations can give you information and support through listening and sharing experiences with other people with depressive disorders.